City Sanitation Planning

City sanitation planning (CSP) is a strategic planning process for citywide sanitation sector development. CSP includes the vision, mission and goals of sanitation development as well as strategies and tools for a stage-based implementation of sanitation solutions that are appropriate to the target city and within the human and financial resources available to the municipalities. CSP provides a sound data-supported basis for practical decision-making on city sanitation and allows for prioritisation of actions, such as in sanitation stress areas or where health risks are highest.

  • CSP guides actions to improve city sanitation through concrete implementation plans and targets.
  • The CSP development process creates ownership of sanitation development among the relevant actors (municipal authorities, the private sector, NGOs, the local population) and explores stakeholder synergies.
  • CSP’s integrated approach brings together sewerage, solid waste management and stormwater management, enabling cities to reduce inconsistencies in planning and mitigate negative cross-sectoral impacts.
  • CSP allows for a systematic, localised interpretation of national and local sanitation policies.

CSP is not limited to dealing with human excreta and providing toilets (the traditional conception of “sanitation). It goes a step further to focus on the larger concept of environmental sanitation, a cross-sectoral perspective that considers all the factors contributing to sanitary urban environments.

Strategic citywide sanitation planning aligns practical decision-making with available resources & suitable stage-based, integrated approaches

Graphic: Environmental Sanitation (CSP)

“Polycentric approaches to the management of urban water resources in Southeast Asia” is a practice-orientated joint research project undertaken by cities and government agencies in Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Vietnam, academic institutions, and civil society organisations including BORDA.

The project addresses cross-sectoral dimensions of urban planning, water management, technological change and comprehensive capacity development. The aim is to develop practice-relevant tools that allow fast-growing cities in Southeast Asia to implement the New Urban Agenda through polycentric and decentralised approaches to urban development and integrated, cross-sector water management:

  • planning approaches for the design of liveable neighbourhoods and public spaces, locally adapted water and sanitation management, communal/local circular economies, and water-sensitive infrastructure development;
  • translation of innovative concepts for integrated water management, circular economies and public services in municipal entities’ organisational structures and procedures;
  • design and implementation of multi-actor processes at local level, with special attention paid to participation of local communities and women;
  • design of cooperation relations at national and international level.

The overall aim of such system approaches is to strengthen the resilience of urban areas and make comprehensive water resource management possible, thus enabling the localisation of Agenda 2030 in a strategic field of urban development.

Timeframe: planned for 2019-2022 with 2017-2018 inception phase

Funded by: German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

Partners: Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), People-Sanitation-Cities alliance, Habitat Unit of Technical University Berlin, TH Köln University of Applied Sciences, Vietnam Academy for Water Resources

Developing practical tools for cities to use in implementing the New Urban Agenda

Workshopping tools at World Urban Forum 9 in Kuala Lumpur

As part of a 2012-2015 EU project aimed at strengthening cooperation between utilities and operators in Dar es Salaam, BORDA worked in partnership with Hamburg Wasser (project lead) and Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority (DAWASA) to create the website, a publicly accessible interactive tool for determining “which sanitation solutions go where”.

Drawing on our expertise in the water and sanitation sectors, BORDA developed the website as a simple, fast and flexible tool that:

  • aids in citywide sanitation planning, mapping and communication;
  • applies selected demographic, physical and economic characteristics to the city sanitation map;
  • generates detailed downloadable reports on possible solutions for the selected area;
  • is open to updates accounting for onsets of cholera, new investments, current recommendations and other relevant factors;
  • offers a downloadable 3-part City Sanitation Planning package and additional resources for more information on the solutions; and
  • enables a deeper understanding of the context surrounding our decentralised sanitation projects in Dar es Salaam, including “Demonstration of decentralised wastewater projects in non-sewered areas of Dar es Salaam” and “DEWATS for Dar”.

The website has been designed to assist decision-makers and practitioners involved in urban environmental sanitation planning in Dar es Salaam. These include:

  • municipalities
  • water / wastewater utilities
  • sector regulators
  • service providers
  • city council / local governments
  • urban planners & urban developers
  • donors
  • NGOs

We invite you to use our online City Sanitation Planning tool
(instructions under that site’s “What is CSP?” menu).

An integrated environmental sanitation approach: which sanitation solutions go where?

Screenshot of Dar es Salaam map from

Screenshot from
Dar es Salaam sanitation map with Kigamboni selected
(click for larger view)

> sample report: download the “possible solutions” report for Kigamboni (2MB PDF)
> implemented solution: see for more about FSM in Kigamboni

In 2014 the Government of Bangladesh launched its 3rd Urban Governance and Infrastructure Improvement Project (UGIIP III), which includes the Sanitation Action Plans and Technology Demonstration(s) for 30 Pourashavas project. Financed by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the project aims to reform sanitation infrastructure and its governance within the 30 selected pourashavas (municipalities with 5,000-25,000 inhabitants) to make them model towns for the rest of the country.

As part of this project, BORDA prepared a technical action plan to implement modular and decentralised sanitation infrastructure in combination with capacity-building programmes and awareness creation campaigns. The action plan was based on surveys and analysis in each of the 30 pourashavas:

  • sanitation baseline survey focused primarily on faecal sludge management (FSM),
  • situation analysis for each stage of the sanitation value chain, including access to infrastructure and quality status of existing systems, and
  • assessment of demand for new infrastructure and improvements to existing systems

The result: a programmatic approach to rolling out a central government-led countrywide FSM programme that will create opportunities to develop an ecosystem for pourashavas to actively participate in and implement.

Models for future development: municipal action plans for countrywide replication

Pourashavas selected for Bangladesh's 3rd Urban Governance and Infrastructure Improvement Project